Annotated Bibliography on the Great Wall of China

Donald B. Wagner

Draft, 6 April 2007

General studies || Field studies – General || Field studies – Particular localities || Additional references

This bibliography includes items which I have come across through years of collecting, plus items which I have been able to find through straightforward bibliographic searches in relation to each topic. It is therefore somewhat idiosyncratic, including much that is only peripherally relevant but undoubtedly missing some much more relevant material.

The bibliographic software I use, Endnote version 9, gives the possibility of attaching one graphic file to each entry. I have often used this possibility to provide one illustration from the publication, and sometimes for various other purposes. Click on any image to see it enlarged.

The Shi ji tells us that the First Emperor, after the conquest of the Seven States, joined up their defence walls to form a full defence wall against nomadic incursions from the north. This was the original Great Wall, a term later used for all the defence walls built through the ages. In my annotations I have had difficulty deciding when to translate changcheng 長城 as 'Great Wall' and when merely as 'defence wall'.

This bibliography is an offshoot of a wider work in progress, an annotated bibliography of the history and archaeology of the state and empire of Qin. In the present case I have chosen to include all material related to defence walls, from Zhanguo to Ming, but Qin has had priority in my collecting of material.

General studies

- - -. 1981.
‘Changcheng wenxian ziliao jilüe’ 长城文献资料辑略 (Annotated bibliography of literature on the Great Wall). In Zhongguo Changcheng yiji diaocha baogao ji 中国长城遗迹调 查报告集. Beijing: Wenwu Chubanshe 文物出版社, pp. 119–140.

Quotations of the basic sources on the Great Wall from the Warring States to the Ming period, with brief annotations. Unannotated list of additional references – see pdf image.
•
Changcheng wenxian ziliao jilüe (1981). Four-page pdf file. 
- - -. 1981.
‘Qin dai Changcheng xi qi hechu?’ 秦代长城西起何处? (Where is the western end of the Qin Great Wall?). Wen hui bao 文汇报 1981.12.5.

Not seen. Source: Wenwu 1982.4: 95.
 
- - -. 1982.
La grande muraille .

Not seen. Source: bookseller’s catalogue. See image.
• 
- - -. 2006.
‘[Theme issue on China’s Great Walls]’. China heritage quarterly (China Heritage Project, The Australian National University) 6
http://www.chinaheritagequarterly.org/editorial.php?issue=006

Several articles, especially on the remains of the Ming wall.
 
- - -. 2006.
‘Recent Chinese publications on the Great Wall’. China heritage quarterly 6
http://www.chinaheritagequarterly.org/scholarship.php?searchterm=006_bibliography.inc&issue=006

Unannotated bibliography of ca. 300 items, published 1963–2006. Overlaps the present bibliography.
 
- - -. 2006.
Zhongguo Changcheng wang 中国长城网 (Website on the Great Wall of China). Changcheng Xuehui 长城学会.
http://www.chinagreatwall.org/

Popular site with an enormous amount of material, including maps, colour photographs, full-text articles (some academic), and links to related sites.
 
Bodard, Lucien. 1987.
Les grandes murailles . Paris: B. Grasset.

Not seen.
 
Bonzi, L. 1959.
La muraille de Chine .

Not seen. Source: bookseller’s catalogue. See image.
•
Source of Bonzi (1959). 
Büchler, Pavel. 1986.
2200th anniversary of the Great Wall of China, Berlin 1961-1986 . [S.l.]: [s.n.].
all ill ; 40 x 58 folded to 40 x 29 cm.

Not seen.
 
Ch`eng, Ta-lin. 1984.
The Great Wall of China . Hong Kong: South China Morning Post : New China News.
col. ill ; 29 cm.

Not seen.
 
Colombo John, Robert, and Jacques Godbout. 1969.
La Grande muraille de Chine . Montreal: Editions du Jour.
21 cm.

Not seen.
 
Duyvendak Jan Julius, Lodewijk. 1953.
De Grote Chinese muur. Rede, etc . Leiden.
8o.

Not seen.
 
Feng Faguang, and Chen Weidong, eds. 1993.
Great wall . Beijing.

Not seen. Source: bookseller’s catalogue. See image.

Source of Feng Faguang & Chen Weidong (1993). 
Fryer, Jonathan. 1975.
The Great Wall of China . London: New English Library.
ill., maps, ports ; 26 cm. Bibliography included.

Not seen.
 
Gao Wang 高旺. 1995.
Neimenggu Changcheng shihua 内蒙古长城史话 (The story of the Great Wall in Inner Mongolia). Hohhot: Neimenggu renmin.

Not seen. Source: Danish Royal Library catalogue (Rex).
 
Geil, William Edgar. 1909.
The great wall of China . London: J. Murray.
plates, maps ; 24 cm.

Not seen.
 
Godbout, Jacques, and John Robert Colombo. 1969.
La grand muraille de Chine . 1 vols. Montreal: Editions du Jour.

Poetry. Not seen.
 
Görbing-King, Charles. 1973.
Wall of death : the building of the Great Wall of China . London: Abelard-Schuman.

Not seen.
 
Jing Ai 景爱. 2005.
‘Guanyu Changcheng qiyuan de wushuo’ 关于长城起源的误说 (Some incorrect theories on the origin of the Great Walll). Beifang wenwu 北方文物 (‘Northern cultural relics’) 2005.1: 75–81.

Refutes three theories discussed by Lao Lei (2002) concerning the origin of the Great Wall: 1. It was intended for water control. 2. It was not intended for military defence. 3. It was intended as a showpiece.
 
Lan, Peijin, and Lei Cao. 1997.
Chang cheng = The Great Wall . Beijing: Waiwen Chubanshe 外文出版社.

Not seen.
 
Lao Lei 老雷. 2002.
Shiqu chen’ai: zhaoxun zhenshi de Changcheng 拭去尘埃:找寻真实的长城 (Wiping away the dust: In search of the real Great Wall). Dongfang Chubanshe 东方出版社.

Not seen; cited by Jing Ai (2005).
 
Li Wenlong 李文龙. 2001.
‘Zhongguo gudai Changcheng de sige lishi fazhan jieduan’ 中国古代长城的四个历史发展阶段 (Four historical stages in the development of the ancient Chinese Great Wall). Wenwu chunqiu 文物春秋 (Cultural relics annals) 2001.2: 37–39, 43.

Review of historical sources. The stages are: 1. Proto-form, ca. 2000 BC. 2. Early form, Chunqiu–Zhanguo. 3. Basic form, Qin–Tang. 4. Final form, Jīn–Ming.
 
Li Wenxin 李文信. 1979.
‘Zhongguo beibu Changcheng yan’ge kao (shang)’ 中国北部长城沿革考(上) (The changes and development of defence walls in north China, part 1). Shehui kexue jikan 社会科学辑刊 (Social sciences compendium) 1979.1.

Not seen. Cited by Ye Xiaoyan (1987: 48, fn. 6).
 
Lindesay, William. 2003.
‘Wild wall’
http://www.wildwall.com/

Web-site with much material on the Ming Great Wall, including numerous colour photographs. Bibliography lists a number of publications not listed in the present bibliography, including several books by Lindesay.
 
Liu Huru 劉虎如. 1931.
‘Changcheng’ 長城 (The Great Wall). Xuesheng zazhi 學生雜志 (Students’ magazine) 18.3: 70–76.

Not seen. Cited in Zhongguo kaoguxue wenxian mulu 1900–1949 (1991: 265).
 
Liu Xiang 刘翔, and Liu Shuyong 刘蜀永. 1982.
‘XX Qiang zhong ming – Woguo muqian zui zao he weiyi jizai Changcheng lishi de jinwen’ 囗羌钟铭 – 我国目前最早和惟一记载长城历史的金文 (The XX-Qiang inscription: The earliest and unique bronze inscription reporting the history of the Great Wall.). Kaogu yu wenwu 考古与文物 (‘Archaeology and cultural relics’) 1982.2: 50–51.

This inscription, on a Zhanguo set of bells found in Luoyang in 1928, appears to mention changcheng 长城. The otherwise earliest occurrences of the term are in Shui jing zhu, Tongjian waiji 通鉴外纪, and Zhushu jinian. For the character XX see image.

Title of Liu Xiang & Liu Shuyong (1982) 
Lo, Che-wen [i.e. Luo Zhewen 罗哲文]. 1981.
The Great Wall . Michael Joseph: London.
ill. (some col.) ; 29 cm Bibliography: p. 188 Includes index.

Not seen.
 
Lo, Che-wen [i.e. Luo Zhewen 罗哲文], and Lo Chao. 1986.
The Great Wall of China in history and legend . (Traditional Chinese arts and culture). Beijing ; Beijing: Foreign Languages Press : Distributed by China International Book Trading Corp. (Guoji Shudian).
ill. (some col.), maps ; 26 cm.

Not seen.
 
Locnaeus, J. 1694.
Murus Sinensis brevi dissertatione adumbratus. . Uppsala: H. Keyser.

Not seen. Source: bookseller's catalogue. See image.

Locnaeus (1694). 
Lum, Peter. 1960.
The purple barrier : the story of the Great Wall of China . London: R. Hale.
illus ; 23 cm Includes bibliographical references and index.

Not seen.
 
Luo Zhewen 罗哲文. 1981.
‘Wanli Changcheng 万里长城 ’ (The Great Wall). Wenwu tiandi 文物天地 (‘Cultural relics world’) 1981.1: 3–4.

Popular historical article. No illustrations, very little archaeology.
 
Luo, Zewen [i.e. Luo Zhewen 罗哲文], Jacques Gernet, and Emil M. Bührer. 1981.
The Great Wall . New York: McGraw Hill.
ill., maps ; 29 cm Includes bibliographical references and index.
 
Michaud, Roland, Michel Jan, and Sabrina Michaud. 2000.
La grande muraille de Chine . Paris: Impr. nationale.

Not seen.
 
Michaud, Roland, Sabrina Michaud, and Michel Jan. 2001.
The great wall of China . 1st , English ed ed. New York: Abbeville Press Publishers.
ill. (some col.), col. map ; 31 cm. Includes bibliographical references (p. 263-264) and index.

Not seen.
 
Murata Akio 村田亞紀夫. 1987.
‘Kodai Chūgoku ni okeru jōheki kenchiku’ 古代中國における城壁建築 (City and wall construction in ancient China). Shigaku kenkyū 史學研究 175.

Not seen. Falkenhausen (2002: 29): ‘Explores the construction of capitals and of the Great Wall during the Warring States period.’
 
Nancarrow, Peter. 1978.
Early China and the wall . (Cambridge introduction to the history of mankind : topic book). Cambridge [etc.]: Cambridge University Press.
ill., maps, plan ; 21x22cm Index.

Not seen. ‘Traces the history of China from the earliest times to about 50 B.C. and discusses the origins of walled fortifications that eventually resulted in the building of the Great Wall.’
 
Ou Yan 瓯燕. 1999.
‘Yan guo kaituo Zuguo beijiang de lishi gongji’ 燕国开拓祖国北疆的历史功绩 (The historical contribution of the state of Yan in the opening up of the northern frontier of the Homeland). Wenwu chunqiu 文物春秋 (Cultural relics annals) 1999.4: 1–6.

Historical study, very little archaeology. Includes sources on pre-Qin and Qin walls.
 
Qianlong 乾隆 (Emperor). 1752.
Gu Changcheng shuo 古長城說 (On the ancient Great Wall, stone inscription).

Not seen. Buni Alin (1981: 40, 41, fig. 2) quotes from it and gives a poor photograph of a rubbbing.
• 
Roberts, Claire, and Geremie Barme, eds. 2006.
The Great Wall of China. Sydney: Powerhouse Museum.

Not seen. Source http://recollections.nma.gov.au/issues/vol_2_no_1/exhibition_reviews/the_great_wall_of_china/
 
Sauvain, Philip, and Edward Mortelmans. 1972.
The Great Wall of China. (Round the world histories, 26). [Amersham]: Hulton.
ill.(some col), maps(some col) ; 21cm.

Not seen.
 
Schwartz, Daniel, and Jorge Luis Borges. 1990.
The Great Wall of China . London: Thames and Hudson.
ill., maps, ports ; 27cm Contents: Contains The Wall and the books, a chapter from Labyrinths by Jorge Luis Borges: New Directions, 1962.

Not seen.
 
Shi Nianhai 史念海. 1999.
‘Xibei diqu zhu changcheng de fenbu ji qi lishi junshi dili’ 西北地区诸长城的分布及其历史军事地理 (The distribution of ancient defence walls in the Northwest and their historical and military geography). In He shan ji: Qi ji 河山集 七集. Xi’an: Shǎnxi Shifan Daxue Chubanshe 陕西师范大学出版社, pp. 324–.

Not seen. Source Zhongguo bianjiang shi-di yanjiu, 2003.2: 17, fn. 5.
 
Shou Pengfei 壽鵬飛. 1941.
‘Wanli Changcheng kao’ 萬里長城考 (On the Ten-thousand-li Great Wall). Guoxue congkan 國學叢刊 (Beijing) (Sinology Collection) 1–2: 12–18, 16–22.

Not seen. Cited in Zhongguo kaoguxue wenxian mulu 1900–1949 (1991: 265).
 
Shou Pengfei 壽鵬飛. 1941/1978.
Lidai Changcheng kao 歷代長城攷. Hong Kong: Longmen shudian 龍門書店.
Orig. Detian Lu cungao 得天廬存稿, 2.

Very thorough study of the historical sources on the Great Wall from the Warring States to the Ming period. No field observations or archaeology.

Shou Pengfei (1941). 
Silverberg, Robert. 1965.
The Great Wall of China . 1st ed. Philadelphia: Chilton Books.
ill., maps ; 23 cm Bibliography included Bibliography: p. 222-224.

Not seen.
 
Sun Ling 孙玲. 2004.
‘Quanguo di yi ge Changcheng baohu zhuanxiang guizhang chutai – Jieshao “Beijing shi Changcheng baohu guanli banfa” de zhidao sixiang’ 全国第一个长城保护专项规章出台–介绍 “北京市长城保护管理办法” 的指导思想 (The first law devoted to preservation of the Great Wall – Introduction to the guiding ideology behind the regulations). Beijing wenbo 北京文博 (Beijing cultural relics and museums) 2004.1: 15–20.

Discussion and text of Beijing municipal regulkations concerning the preservation of Great Wall remains. Photographs of Ming wall remains.
 
Tuo Wu 橐吾. 1925.
‘Wanli Changcheng kao’ 萬里長城考 (On the Ten-thousand-li Great Wall). Dongbei wenhua yuebao 東北文化 月報 4.3–4: 14–21.

Not seen. Cited in Zhongguo kaoguxue wenxian mulu 1900–1949 (1991: 265).
 
Waldron, Arthur. 1983.
‘The problem of the Great Wall ’. Harvard journal of Asiatic studies 43.2: 643–663.

A history of ideas about the Great Wall and about Chinese defence walls in general, with emphasis on the Ming wall. Many references to historical sources and modern studies. No archaeology. No illustrations.
 
Waldron, Arthur. 1990.
The Great Wall of China : from history to myth. Canto ed. (Cambridge studies in Chinese history, literature and institutions). Cambridge [England] ; New York: Cambridge University Press.
ill : maps ; 24cm. Includes bibliography and index.

Not seen.
 
Wang, Feng. 1996.
The Great wall is a great wall = A great wall . [London]: Channel 4. 1videocassette, 110 min : sd., col. Motion picture, Video. Multiple languages. Cast includes Wang Xiao, Li Qinqin, Xiu Jian. English subtitles. Film made in 1985. Off air recording.

Not seen.
 
Wang Guoliang 王國良. 1931.
Zhongguo Changcheng yan’ge kao 中國長城沿革攷 (‘History of the Great Wall’, by Wang Kuo Liang). Shanghai: Shangwu Yinshuguan 商務印書館.
Facs. repr. Wang Guoliang & Shou Pengfei (1978).

Very thorough study of the historical sources on the Great Wall from the Warring States to the Ming period. No field observations or archaeology. Numerous maps.
 
Wang Li 王莉, and Li Shaobai 李少白. 2003.
‘Gei Changcheng yige shuofa’ 给长城一个说法 (An interpretation of the Great Wall). Wenwu tiandi 文物天地 (‘Cultural relics world’) 2003.12: 4–11.

An appreciation of the Ming wall, with colour photographs
 
Wei Baoxin 魏保信. 1997.
‘Mingdai Changcheng kaolüe’ 明代长城考略 (The Great Wall of the Ming period). Wenwu chunqiu 文物春秋 (Cultural relics annals) 1997.2: 51–55.

Review of historical sources on the building of the Ming wall. No archaeology, no illustrations.
 
Xiao Huakun 肖华锟, and Ai Tinghe 艾廷和. 2003.
‘Chu changcheng de jianzhu shijian he xingshi kao’ 楚长城的建筑时间和形式考 (The construction period and form of the Chu defence walls). Jiang Han kaogu 江汉考古 (‘Jianghan archaeology’) 2003.4: 69–74.

Review of historical sources on the Chu defence walls. Sources cited include Zuo zhuan, Shi ji, Shui jing zhu, and Kuo di zhi. Very brief field observations. No illustrations. English abstract in article, see image.

Xiao Huakun & Ai Tinghe (2003) 
Ye Xiaoyan 叶小燕. 1987.
‘Zhongguo zaoqi changcheng de tansuo yu cunyi’ 中国早期长城的探索与存疑 (Investigations and doubts concerning the early defence walls of China). Wenwu 文物 (‘Cultural relics’) 1987.7: 41–49.

Study of historical sources concerning walls of the Zhanguo, Qin, and Han periods. Sources cited include Shi ji, Shui jing zhu, Zhu shu ji nian, local gazetteers, bronze inscriptions, Kuo di zhi, Tai ping huan yu ji, Han shu, Zuo zhuan, Hou Han shu, Guo yu. Cites some archaeological surveys. Map.

Ye Xiaoyan (1987). 
Yu Jin 郁进, and Luo Zhewen 罗哲文, eds. 1980.
Changcheng (‘The Great Wall’). Beijing: Wenwu Chubanshe 文物出版社.

A picture book covering defence walls of all periods, with OK photographs, many in colour. Short text in Chinese and English by Luo Zhewen.

From Yu Jin (1980). 
Zhang Min 张敏. 2003.
‘Lun Bei Wei Changcheng – junzhen fangyu tixi de jianli’ 论北魏长城 – 军镇防御体系的建立 (The defence wall of the Northern Wei [AD 386–584]: The establishment of a garrison defence system). Zhongguo bianjiang shi di yanjiu 中国边疆史地研究 (‘China’s borderland history and geography studies’) 13.2: 13–18.

Detailed historical study, based largely on Wei shu and Bei shi. A few references to field studies. No illustrations.
 
Zhang Pingyi 张平一. 2003.
‘Hebei jingnei changcheng de lishi jiazhi he zuoyong’ 河北境内长城的历史价值和作用 (The historical value and function of the Great Wall in Hebei province). Wenwu chunqiu 文物春秋 (Cultural relics annals) 2003.1: 28–33.

Review of historical sources on defence walls of all periods in Hebei province. No archaeology, no illustrations.
 
Zhang Weihua 张维华. 1979.
Zhongguo Changcheng jianzhi kao 中国长城建置考 (The construction of the Great Wall of China).

Not seen. Source: Zhongguo shehui kexue 1981.5: 199; Wenwu 1987.7: 48.
 
Zhang Wenjiang 张文江. 2004.
‘Weinan diqu Qin Wei zhu Changcheng kaobian’ 渭南地区秦魏诸长城考辨 (The Great Wall of the states of Qin and Wei in the Weinan region). Wenbo 文博 (Relics and museology) 2004.1: 40–45.

Study of historical sources, including Shi ji, Shui jing zhu, Lü shi chunqiu. No archaeology, no illustrations.
 
Zhang Xiangwen 張相文. 1914.
‘Changcheng kao’ 長城考 (On the Great Wall). Dixue zazhi 地學雜志 (Geography magazine) 5.9: 1–3.

Not seen. Cited in Zhongguo kaoguxue wenxian mulu 1900–1949 (1991: 265).
 
Zhu Weiming 朱維明. 1935.
‘Wanli Changcheng’ 萬里長城 (The Ten-thousand-li Great Wall). Zhongxuesheng 中學生 (Middle-school student) 54: 87–98.

Not seen. Cited in Zhongguo kaoguxue wenxian mulu 1900–1949 (1991: 265). Map.
 

Field studies – General

- - -. 1981.
Zhongguo Changcheng yiji diaocha baogao ji 中国长城遗迹调查报告集 (Collection of field surveys of remains of the Great Wall). Beijing: Wenwu Chubanshe 文物出版社.

Facsimile reprints of 15 journal articles, plus introduction plus annotated bibliography. Walls from Zhanguo to Ming. No indication of original publication data. See image for Table of Contents. Not all articles are registered separately in the present bibliography.

Zhongguo Changcheng yiji diaocha baogao (1981). 
- - -. 1981.
‘Changcheng baohu yanjiu gongzuo zuotanhui ceji’ 长城保护研究工作座谈会侧记 (Symposium on conservation of the Great Wall). In Zhongguo Changcheng yiji diaocha baogao ji 中国长城遗迹调查报告集. Beijing: Wenwu Chubanshe 文物出版社, pp. 1–5.

The symposium was held in July–August 1979 in Hohhot, and concluded with concrete proposals to the politicians. Article has some information on archaeological and conservation work in progress. No illustrations.
 
- - -. 1986.
‘Zhanguo, Qin, Han Changcheng diaocha (bitan)’ 战国、秦、汉长城调查 (笔谈) (Jottings on investigations of the Zhanguo, Qin, and Han Great Walls). Wenwu tiandi 文物天地 (‘Cultural relics world’) 1986.2: 41–43.

Short comments by 10 archaeologists and historians who have participated in field surveys of the walls. Two poor photographs.

Anon. (1986). 
- - -. 1986.
‘[Photographs of the Great Wall]’. Wenwu tiandi 文物天地 (‘Cultural relics world’) 1986.3: front cover, inside back cover.

Colour photograph of the Qin wall on cover, 7 b/w photographs of the Han and Ming walls on inside back cover.

WWTD 1986.3. 
- - -. 1989.
Xi Zhou wenwu zhi 西周文物志 (Western Zhou archaeology [in Lanzhou, Gansu]).

Not seen. Cited by Xian Ming & Shang Wuzheng (1992: 88, 96, fn. 13) for construction details of Ming wall in Lanzhou.
 
- - -. 1998.
Zhongguo wenwu dituji: Shǎnxi fence 中国文物地图集 陕西分册 (Atlas of Chinese cultural relics: Shaanxi). 2 vols. Xi’an: Xi’an Ditu Chubanshe 西安地图出版社.

Material on the Qin and Wei Great Walls in vol. 1, pp. 70–71, 390–391; more in the maps and descriptions of individual counties. Nine good colour photographs.

Zhongguo wenwu dituji: Shaanxi, p. 391. 
Brazier, J. S. 1886.
‘Analysis of brick from the Great Wall of China ’. Journal of the China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 21.3/4: 232.

Not seen. Source: Orientalische Bibliographie, 1887.
 
Cheng, Dalin, and Zhongyi Yan. 1990.
Rare pictures of the Great Wall of China . Beijing: Morning Glory Publishers.
chiefly col. ill. ; 35 cm.

Not seen.
 
Cheng Dalin. 1987.
Peregrinations along the Great Wall . Hong Kong: Commercial Press.
ill.

Not seen.
 
Clapp, F. C. 1922.
‘Great Wall of China: A geologist’s examination of the oldest artificial structure in the world ’. Scientific American 126: 404–405.

Not seen. Source: Industrial arts index, 1922/23, p. 268.
 
Hanbury-Tenison, Robin. 1987.
A ride along the Great Wall. London: Century.
ill.(some col.). 24 cm. Includes bibliography and index.

Not seen.
 
Hong Ming 洪銘. 1917.
‘Changcheng kao’ 長城考 (On the Great Wall). Xuesheng zazhi 學生雜志 (Students’ magazine) 4.2: 45–56.

Not seen. Cited in Zhongguo kaoguxue wenxian mulu 1900–1949 (1991: 265). 2 illustrations.
 
Huang Zhanyue 黄展岳. 1984.
‘Qin Han Changcheng yiji de diaocha’ 秦汉长城遗迹的调查 (Investigation of the remains of the Great Wall of the Qin and Han periods). In Xin Zhongguo de kaogu faxian he yanjiu 新中国的考古发现和研究. Beijing: Wenwu Chubanshe 文物出版社, pp. 400–406, 497–498.

Brief historical account followed by a survey of field investigations, with numerous references. No illustrations. Probably the best short introduction to the subject.
 
Jia Zhoujie 贾洲杰. 1981.
‘Jīndai Changcheng’ 金代长城 (The Great Wall of the Jīn Dynasty [1115–1234]). In Zhongguo Changcheng yiji diaocha baogao ji 中国长城遗迹调查报告集. Beijing: Wenwu Chubanshe 文物出版社, pp. 76–83, 92.

Historical study and general description of remains. Some construction details. 2 maps, line drawings.

Jia Zhoujie (1981: 81, fig. 3). 
Lindesay, William. 1989.
Alone on the Great Wall : from the desert to the sea . 1 vols. London: Hodder & Stoughton.
ill ; 23cm Includes bibliography and index.

Not seen.
 
Luo Zhewen 罗哲文. 1986.
‘Sun Fang wanli hui Changcheng’ 孙芳万里绘长城 (Sun Fang paints the Great Wall over 10,000 li.). Wenwu tiandi 文物天地 (‘Cultural relics world’) 1986.3: 30–32.

Description of an exhibition of paintings of the Great Wall, by Sun Fang. Five poor photographs of paintings.
 
Luo Zhewen 罗哲文, He Hong 何洪, and Wang Li 王莉. 2001.
‘Changcheng xiongguan zhi duoshao?’ 长城雄关知多少? (How many passes are there in the Great Wall?). Wenwu tiandi 文物天地 (‘Cultural relics world’) 2001.6: 64–65.

Two-page colour map of China showing all the walls, Zhanguo–Ming, with notes on the passes. Small inset colour photographs.
 
Schwartz, Daniel. 2001.
The Great Wall of China : with 149 duotone photographs and 6 maps. New ed ed. London: Thames and Hudson.
ill.., maps, ports ; 20 x 25 cm Previous ed.: 1990.

Not seen.
 
Xiao Jingquan 萧景全. 2000.
‘Liaodong diqu Yan, Qin, Han Changcheng zhangsai de kaoguxue kaocha yanjiu’ 辽东地区燕, 秦, 汉长城障塞的考古学考察研究 (Archaeological studies of Great Wall fortresses of Yan, Qin, and Han in Liaodong). Beifang wenwu 北方文物 (‘Northern cultural relics’) 2000.3: 78–83.

Review of published archaeoological studies. Numerous references, mostly to inaccessible publications – see image.

Xiao Jingquan (2000). 
Xu Juqing 徐琚清. 1929.
‘Beibian Changcheng kao’ 北邊長城考 (On the northern Great Wall). Shixue nianbao 史學年報 (Historical annual) 1: 15–19.

Not seen. Cited in Zhongguo kaoguxue wenxian mulu 1900–1949 (1991: 265).
 
Xu Yongjie 许永杰. 1992.
‘Changcheng yanxian Zhou Qin shiqi shuang er taoqi de chubu kaocha’ 长城沿线周秦时期双耳陶器的初步考察 (Preliminary study of two-eared pots found along the Zhou–Qin period Great Wall). Beifang wenwu 北方文物 (‘Northern cultural relics’) 1992.2: 3–11.

Pots of many kinds, some well-known in Chinese contexts, but with two ears for hanging up. They are a useful indicator of influence from northern non-Chinese ethnic groups. Map, line drawings of artefacts.

Xu Yongjie (2000). 

Field studies – Particular localities

- - -. 1959.
‘Shǎnxi Huayin Yuezhen Zhanguo gu cheng kancha ji’ 陕西华阴岳镇战国古城勘察记 (Field studies of ancient walls at Yuezhen in Huayin County, Shaanxi). Kaogu 考古 (‘Archaeology’) 1959.11.

Not seen. Source Kaogu 1980.6: 487, fn. 2
 
- - -. 1981.
‘Shānxi sheng jingnei Changcheng jiankuang’ 山西省境内长城简况 (Brief description of the Great Wall in Shanxi province). In Zhongguo Changcheng yiji diaocha baogao ji 中国长城遗迹调查报告集. Beijing: Wenwu Chubanshe 文物出版社, pp. 101–105.

General description of walls built from the Northern Wei to the Ming period. 2 maps, 2 poor photographs.
 
- - -. 1981.
‘Ningxia jingnei Zhanguo, Qin, Han Changcheng yiji’ 宁夏境内战国、秦、汉长城遗迹 (Remains of the Great Wall of the Zhanguo, Qin, and Han periods in Ningxia Province). In Zhongguo Changcheng yiji diaocha baogao ji 中国长城遗迹调查报告集. Beijing: Wenwu Chubanshe 文物出版社, pp. 45–51.

Field survey. Some details of construction techniques. Map, 13 poor photographs of features, photographs of surface finds, line drawings.

Ningxia jingnei Zhanguo, Qin, Han Changcheng yiji (1981: 49, fig. 15). 
- - -. 1982.
‘Qin Changcheng qi yu jin Lintao er fei Minxian’ 秦长城起于今临洮而非岷县 (The western end of the Qin Great Wall is in modern Lintao, not in Minxian). Zhongguoshi yanjiu dongtai 中国史研究动态 1982.3.

Not seen. Source: Shixue qingbao 1982.3: 132.
 
- - -. 1992?
‘Lanzhou diqu Han, Ming changcheng yiji diaocha’ 兰州地区汉、明长城遗迹调查 (Investigation of remains of Han and Ming defence walls in Lanzhou district).
Forthcoming.

Not seen. Cited by Xian Ming & Shang Wuzheng (1992: 96, fn. 6).
 
- - -. 1997.
‘Changcheng yicun ’ 长城遗存 (Remains of the Great Wall.). Wenbo 文博 (Relics and museology) 1997.3: 56–67.

General survey of defence wall sites of all periods in the province of Shaanxi. Map, poor photographs.

Wenbo 1997.3: 58 
Buni Alin 布尼阿林. 1981.
‘Hebei sheng Weichang xian Yan Qin changcheng diaocha baogao’ 河北省围场县燕秦长城调查报告 (Investigation of the Yan–Qin defence wall in Weichang County, Hebei). In Zhongguo Changcheng yiji diaocha baogao ji 中国长城遗迹调查报告集. Beijing: Wenwu Chubanshe 文物出版社, pp. 40–44, 51.

Field survey of 600 km of wall and some structures associated with it. Map, 5 poor photographs.

Buni Alin (1981: 40, fig. 1). 
Chen Mengdong 陈孟东, and Liu Hexin 刘合心. 1983.
‘Wei guo xi changcheng diaocha’ 魏国西长城调查 (Investigation of the western defence wall of the state of Wei). Renwen zazhi 人文杂志 (Humanities journal) 1983.8.

Not seen. Cited by Yao Shuangnian (1993: 56, fn. 1).
 
Chen Shouzhong 陈守忠. 1984.
‘Gansu jingnei Qin Changcheng yiji diaocha ji kaozheng’ 甘肃境内秦长城遗迹调查及考证 (Investigation of remains of the Qin Great Wall in Gansu province). Lishi jiaoxue wenti 历史教学问题 (Issues in history teaching) 1984.2: 13–.

Not seen. Source: Zhongguo kaoguxue nianjian 1985, p. 360
 
Chen Shouzhong 陈守忠. 1984.
‘Gansu jingnei Qin Changcheng yiji diaocha ji kaozheng’ 甘肃境内秦长城遗迹调查及考证 (Investigation of remains of the Qin Great Wall in Gansu province). Xibei shidi 西北史地 (Northwestern history and geography) 1984.2.

Not seen. Source: Ye Xiaoyan (1987: 49, fn. 14).
 
Chen Shouzhong 陈守忠, and Wang Zongyuan 王宗元. 1986.
‘Gansu jingnei Qin Changcheng yiji kaocha ji kaozheng’ 甘肃境内秦长城遗迹考查及考证. Yazhou wenming luncong 亚洲文明论丛 (Essays on Asian civilisation).

Not seen; cited by Xian Ming & Shang Wuzheng (1992: 88, fn. 1).
 
Dai Yingxin 戴应新, and Kang Lanying 康兰英. 1988.
‘Shenmu xian Kuyehe shangyou Qin changcheng diaocha ji’ 神木县窟野河上游秦长城调查记 (Investigation of a Qin defence wall on the upper reaches of the Kuye River in Shenmu County, Shaanxi). Kaogu yu wenwu 考古与文物 (‘Archaeology and cultural relics’) 1988.2: 56–64.

Field survey of a ca. 100-km section of a Qin wall in northern Shaanxi. Some details of construction techniques. Map, poor photographs, line drawings.

Dai Yingxin & Kang Lanying (1988: 57). 
Dai Zhishang 戴志尚, and Liu Hexin 刘合心. 1991.
‘Yulin xin faxian yiduan Qin-Han Changcheng yizhi’ 榆林新发现一段秦汉长城遗址 (A newly discovered section of the Qin–Han Great Wall in Yulin, Shaanxi). Zhongguo wenwu bao 中国文物报 (Chinese cultural relics news) 1991.1.27: 1.

Not seen. Source: Wenbo 1992.6: 87.
 
Dai Zhishang 戴志尚, and Liu Hexin 刘合心. 1993.
‘Yulin shi jingnei xin faxian yiduan Qin Han changcheng yizhi ’ 榆林市境内新发现一 段秦汉长城遗址 (A newly-discovered section of a Qin–Han wall in Yulin Municipality, Shaanxi). Wenbo 文博 (Relics and museology) 1993.2: 82–83.

Field survey of a newly-discovered section of a Qin–Han wall, ca. 25 li (12.5 km) long. Some information on construction techniques. Map, poor photographs.

Dai Zhishang & Liu Hexin (1993: 82). 
Egami Namio, and Mizuno Seiichi. 1935.
Naimōko Chōjō chitai 內蒙古•長城地帶 Mōko saisekki bunka Suien seidōki oyobi Shina hokukyō jōsekimo doki iseki (‘Inner Mongolia and the region of the great wall’). Reprint 1971 ed. (Tōa kōkogaku sōkan : otsu shu 1). Tōkyō & Kyōto: Tōa kōko gakkai 東亞考古學會.

Not seen. Source: Danish & Swedish library catalogues; see image.

Egami & Mizuno (1935). 
Fang Jianrong 方健荣. 2004.
‘Dunhuang de Changcheng’ 敦煌的长城 (The Great Wall in Dunhuang). Sichou zhi lu 丝绸之路 (‘The Silk Road’) 2004.10: 23.

Brief description of a part of the Great Wall in Dunhuang, Gansu. One OK photograph.

From Fang Jianrong (2004). 
Fu Yunsen 傅運森. 1911.
‘Qin Changcheng dongduan kao’ 秦長城東端考 (The eastern end of the Qin Great Wall). Dixue zazhi 地學雜志 (Geography magazine) 2.17: 1–3.

Not seen. Cited in Zhongguo kaoguxue wenxian mulu 1900–1949 (1991: 265).
 
Gai Shanlin 盖山林, and Lu Sixian 陆思贤. 1980.
‘Neimenggu jingnei Zhanguo Qin Han Changcheng yiji’ 内蒙古境内战国秦汉长城遗迹 (Remains of the Great Wall of the Zhanguo, Qin, and Han periods in Inner Mongolia). In Zhongguo Kaogu Xuehui di yi ci nianhui lunwenji 1979 中国考古学会第一次年会论文集 1979 Beijing: Wenwu Chubanshe 文物出版社, pp. 212–224.

Field survey and trial excavations. Map, poor photographs, line drawings.

Gai Shanlin & Lu Sixian (1980). 
Gai Shanlin 盖山林, and Lu Sixian 陆思贤. 1981.
‘Yinshan Nanli de Zhao Changcheng’ 阴山南麓的赵长城 (The Zhao Great Wall in the southern foothills of the Yinshan Mountains, Inner Mongolia). In Zhongguo Changcheng yiji diaocha baogao ji 中国长城遗迹 调查报告集. Beijing: Wenwu Chubanshe 文物出版社, pp. 21–24.

Field survey. Some details of construction techniques. Map, line drawings, 6 poor photographs.

Gai Shanlin & Lu Sixian (1981: 21, fig. 1). 
Gai Shanlin 盖山林, and Lu Sixian 陆思贤. 1981.
‘Chaoge qi Zhaolukulun Handai shicheng ji qi fujin de changcheng’ 潮格旗朝鲁库伦汉代石城及其附近的长城 (A Han-period stone bastion and nearby defence wall at Zhaolukulun in Chaoge Banner, Inner Mongolia). In Zhongguo Changcheng yiji diaocha baogao ji 中国长城遗迹调查报告集. Beijing: Wenwu Chubanshe 文物出版社, pp. 25–33.

Trial excavations of the bastion and field survey of the defence wall. Some construction details. Map, line drawings of artefacts and features, 11 poor photographs of features

Gai Shanlin & Lu Sixian (1981: 10, fig. 31. 
Gao Hongbin 高鸿宾. 2003.
‘Zhangjiakou Zhanguo Zhao changcheng kao’ 张家口战国赵长城考 (A Zhao wall of the Zhangguo period in Zhangjiakou, Hebei). Wenwu chunqiu 文物春秋 (Cultural relics annals) 2003.6: 38–41.

Survey of a 100-km section of an ancient wall west of Beiing. References to Shi ji, Hou Han shu, Bei Qi shu, and local gazetteers.Some information on construction techniques. Survey map, 2 OK photographs.
 
Gong Ruxu 巩如旭. 1984.
‘Qin Shihuang Wanli Changcheng shouqi chu yiji qiusuo’ 秦始皇 万里长城首起处遗迹求索 (The remains of the starting point of the First Emperor’s Great Wall). Xibei shidi 西北史地 (Northwestern history and geography) 1984.2.

Not seen. Cited by Ye Xiaoyan (1987: 49, fn. 15).
 
Gu Jiegang 顧頡剛. 1963.
‘Gansu Qin Changcheng’ 甘肅秦長城 (Remains of the Qin Great Wall in Gansu). In Shilin zashi 史林雜識. Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju 中華書局, repr. 1977, pp. 77–78, map 9, pl. 2–6.

Brief note on field observations of remains of the Qin wall in 1937. Map in separate envelope, 3 poor photographs of maps, 3 poor photographs of wall remains. Photographs may be better reproduced in 1963 orig. than in 1977 repr.

Gu Jiegang (1963, Map 9). 
He Deliang 何德亮. 2003.
‘Qi Changcheng xianzhuang kaocha’ 齐长城现状考察 (Investigation of the present state of the Qi Great Wall). Wenwu tiandi 文物天地 (‘Cultural relics world’) 2003.12: 24–25.

Description of wall remains of the Chunqiu–Zhanguo period. No historical references cited. Colour photographs.

He Deliang (2003). 
He Yu 何钰. 1987.
‘Dingxi diqu Zhanguo Qin changcheng yiji kaocha ji’ 定西地区战国秦长城遗迹考察记 (Survey of remains of a Qin defence wall of the Zhanguo period in Dingxi Region). Wenwu 文物 (‘Cultural relics’) 1987.7: 50–59.

Field survey of a Qin defence wall in southern Gansu. Some historical references. Maps, poor photographs.

He Yu (1987). 
Hu Yang 胡杨. 2003.
‘Zhongguo Changcheng di yi guan: Jiayuguan Changcheng Bowuguan’ 中国长城第一馆: 嘉峪关长城博物馆 (The Great Wall Museum in Jiayuguan Municipality, Gansu). Sichou zhi lu 丝绸之路 2003.6: 29–31.

Description of the museum. Colour photographs, none relevant for early periods.
 
Hu Yang 胡杨, and Wang Jin 王金. 2003.
‘Hexi Changcheng’ 河西长城 (The Great Wall in the Western Region). Sichou zhi lu 丝绸之路 2003.9: 29–33.

Excellent colour photographs of Han and Ming ruins in Gansu. Not much text.

Hu Yang & Wang Jin (2003) 
Ji Naijun 姬乃军. 1990.
‘Yan’an diqu Zhanguo Qin changcheng kaocha jianbao’ 延安地区战国秦长城考察简报 (Survey of a Qin defence wall of the Zhanguo period in Yan’an Region, Shaanxi). Kaogu yu wenwu 考古与文物 (‘Archaeology and cultural relics’) 1990.6: 66–71.

Field survey of a ca. 100 km section of a Qin wall in northern Shaanxi. Some details of construction techniques. Map, poor photographs.

Ji Naijun (1990). 
Ji Naijun 姬乃军. 1996.
‘Shǎnxi Fu xian Qin “Shang jun sai” Changcheng tacha’ 陕西富县秦 “上郡塞” 长城踏查 (On-site inspection of the Great Wall at the Qin “Shang Commandery Pass” in Fu County, Shaanxi). Kaogu 考古 (‘Archaeology’) 1996.3: 276–277, 274.

Field survey, with some details of wall construction techniques. Map.

Ji Naijun (1996). 
Ke Quan 可權. 1913.
‘Zhao changcheng yizhi’ 趙長城遺址 (Remains of the defence wall of the state of Zhao). Dixue zazhi 地學雜志 (Geography magazine) 4.8: 21.

Not seen. Cited in Zhongguo kaoguxue wenxian mulu 1900–1949 (1991: 265).
 
Li Dianfu 李殿福. 1982.
‘Dongbei jingnei Yan, Qin changcheng kao’ 东北境内燕, 秦长城考 (The Yan and Qin defence walls in Northeast China). Heilongjiang wenwu congkan 黑龙江文物丛刊 (Heilongjiang cultural relics series) 1982.1: 59–62.

Not seen. Source: Kaogu 1982.5: 559.
 
Li Hongxiong 李红雄. 1990.
‘Gansu Qingyang diqu jingnei changcheng diaocha yu tansuo ’ 甘肃庆阳地区境内长城调查与探索 (Survey of sections of the Great Wall in Qingyang Region, Gansu). Kaogu yu wenwu 考古与文物 (‘Archaeology and cultural relics’) 1990.6: 72–83.

Field survey of several sections of wall in southern Gansu. Some details of construction techniques. Maps, poor photographs, line drawings of artefacts.
 
Li Lin 李璘. 1999.
‘Dui Changcheng xi qi Lintao ji Gansu Minxian de zai renshi’ 对长城西起临洮即甘肃岷县的再认识 (Further considerations showing that Lintao, the Western end of the Great Wall, is in modern Minxian, Gansu.). Sichou zhi lu 丝绸之路 1999.2: 62–64.

Reviews the question and the historical sources, then argues for Minxian on the basis of archaeological material. Poor photographs. English abstract, see image.
 
Li Shaobai 李少白. 2003.
‘Beijing baohu Changcheng xingdong – Jinzhi pandeng de “ye Changcheng”’ 北京保护长城行动 – 禁止攀登的 “野长城” (Preservation of the Great Wall in Beijing: The “unimproved Great Wall” on which climbing is prohibited). Wenwu tiandi 文物天地 (‘Cultural relics world’) 2003.12: 12–19.

Very little text. Colour photographs of derelict sections of the Ming wall.
 
Li Wenlong 李文龙. 2001.
‘Baoding jingnei Zhanguo Zhongshan changcheng diaocha ji’ 保定境内战国中山长城调查记 (Investigation of the defence wall of the Zhanguo state of Zhongshan in Baoding district, Hebei). Wenwu chunqiu 文物春秋 (Cultural relics annals) 2001.1: 44–52, 58.

Field survey, with some details of construction techniques. 3 maps, 11 poor photographs, 1 line drawing.

Li Wenlong (2001: 52, fig. 5) 
Li Yuchun 李遇春. 1980.
‘Shǎnxi Huayin, Dali Wei changcheng kancha ji ’ 陕西华阴, 大荔魏长城勘查记. Kaogu 考古 (‘Archaeology’) 1980.6: 481–487.

Field surveys and exploratory excavations of 6 sections of defence wall in southern Shaanxi. References to Shi ji, Lü shi chun qiu, Shui jing zhu, Yuan he jun xian zhi, Tai ping huan yu ji, Zhu shu ji nian, Yan tie lun. Maps, line drawings.
 
Liu Huacheng 刘化成, and Zhang Zhaoxiang 张兆祥. 2001.
‘Langfang shi Zhanguo Yan nan changcheng diaocha baogao’ 廊坊市战国燕南长城调查报告 (Report on investigation of the southern defence wall of Yan of the Zhanguo period in Langfang Municipality, Hebei). Wenwu chunqiu 文物春秋 (Cultural relics annals) 2001.2: 28–36.

Field survey and trial excavations of remains of a Zhanguo wall. Study of historical sources on same. Map, photographs, line drawings of artefacts.

Liu Huacheng & Zhang Zhaoxiang (2001). 
Ma Jieying 马杰英. 1989.
‘Gansu Yongjing xian jingnei Qin Han changcheng fengsui yizhi’ 甘肃永靖县境内秦汉长城烽燧遗址 (Defence wall and beacon-fire sites of the Qin and Han periods in Yongjing County, Gansu). Wenbo 文博 (Relics and museology) 1989.6.

Not seen. Criticized by Xiang Ming & Shang Wuzheng (1992).
 
Ou Yan 瓯燕, and Ye Wansong 叶万松. 1997.
‘“Shangjun Sai” yu “Qian Luo” changcheng bian’ “上郡塞”与“堑洛”长城辨 (Critical discussion of the supposed defence walls Shangjun Sai and Qian luo). Kaogu yu wenwu 考古与文物 (‘Archaeology and cultural relics’) 1997.2: 56–63.

Discussion of interpretation of sources on two Zhanguo walls, citing especially the interpretations of Shi Nianhai (1981; 1985). 1. The Western wall of Wei. 2. A Qin wall near it. Cites archaeological reports, but is mostly concerned with traditional sources. Sources include Zuo zhuan, Zhanguo ce, Shi ji, Han shu, Shuo wen jie zi, Gu jin zhu, Shui jing zhu, San Qin ji. 2 maps.
 
Peng Liping 彭立平. 1997.
‘Hebei Weichang jingnei de gu Changcheng he gu chengzhi’ 河北围场境内的古长城和古城址 (Ancient defence-wall sites and city-sites in Weichang County, Hebei). Wenwu chunqiu 文物春秋 (Cultural relics annals) 1997.2: 48–50, 55.

Field survey of two sections of Qin wall and associated walled settlements. Map.
 
Peng Xi 彭曦. 1992?
Zhanguo Qin Changcheng kaocha yu yanjiu 战国秦长城考察与研究 (Investigations and research on remains of the Great Wall of the Zhanguo and Qin periods). Xibei Daxue Chubanshe 西北大学出版社.

Not seen. Short review by You Ping 幼平 in Wenbo 文博 1992.2: 42. Field surveys of remains of the wall in Dingxi, Pingliang, and Qingyang Regions, Gansu; Qingyuan Region, Ningxia; and northern Shaanxi. Studies of historical sources. Information on building materials and techniques.
 
Peng Xi 彭曦. 1996.
‘Qin Jian gong “qian Luo” yiji kaocha jianbao’ 秦简公 “堑洛” 遗迹考察简报 (Survey of remains of the qian Luo wall of Duke Jian of Qin). Wenwu 文物 (‘Cultural relics’) 1996.4: 66–75.

Field surveys of wall remains in Pucheng and Baishui Counties, Shaanxi. The expression qian Luo (excavated the Luo River?) comes from the Shi ji, and is interpreted by Shi Nianhai and others as referring to these walls. Maps, poor photographs.
 
Qi Honghao 齐洪浩, and Yuan Jimin 袁继民. 1991.
‘Shǎnxi Chengcheng xian, Huanglong xian jiaojie chu Zhanguo Wei changcheng’ 陕西澄城县, 黄龙县交界处战国魏长城 (Defence wall remains of the Zhanguo state of Wei on the border between Chengcheng and Huanglong Counties, Shaanxi). Kaogu 考古 (‘Archaeology’) 1991.3: 280, 279, pl. 8.

Field survey of several wall sections. Map, 3 good photographs.

Qi Honghao & Yuan Jimin (1991). 
Shi Nianhai 史念海. 1981.
‘Huanghe zhongyou Zhanguo ji Qin shi zhu Changcheng yiji de tansuo’ 黄河中游战国及秦时诸长城遗迹的探索 (Investigation of remains of Zhanguo and Qin defence walls in the middle reaches of the Huanghe). In He shan ji: Er ji 河山集 二集. Beijing: Sanlian Shudian 三连书店, Orig. Shǎnxi Shida xuebao 陕西师大学报, 1978.2. Repr. in Zhongguo Changcheng yiji diaocha baogao ji, pp. 52–67., pp. 435–470.

Field and historical survey of 5 wall sections: 1. Wei 魏 wall along the border between Shanxi and Shaanxi. 2. The first Qin wall, parallel and close to the Wei wall, mentioned in Shi ji (15: 708) with the words qian Luo 塹洛 (excavated the Luo River?). 3. Qin wall in the mid-Luo River valley, Shaanxi. 4. Qin wall, NE–SW from Inner Mongolia, through southern Shaanxi, into Gansu. 5. Western section of Qin Shihuang’s Great Wall, N–S in Gansu and Ningxia. Historical sources include Zhanguo ce, Shi ji, Shui jing zhu, Han shu, Yuanhe jun xian zhi, Taiping huanyu ji, local gazetteers. Maps, poor photographs.

From Shi Nianhai (1981: 445). 
Shi Nianhai 史念海. 1981.
‘E’erduosi Gaoyuan dongbu Zhanguo shiqi Qin Changcheng yiji tansuo ji’ 鄂尔多斯高原东部战国时期秦长城遗迹探索记 (Report on investigation of remains of the Zhanguo-period Qin Great Wall in the eastern Ordos Plain.). In He shan ji: Er ji 河山集 二集. Beijing: Sanlian Shudian 三连书店, pp. 471–487.

Field and historical survey of the Qin wall in northern Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia. Historical sources include Shi ji, Han shu, Hou Han shu, Shui jing zhu, Yuanhe jun xian zhi. Map, poor photographs.

From Shi Nianhai (1981: 473). 
Shi Nianhai 史念海. 1985.
‘Luohe you an Zhanguo shiqi Qin Changcheng yiji de tansuo’ 洛河右岸战国时期秦长城遗迹的探索 (Investigation of remains of the Qin Great Wall of the Warring States period on the right bank of the Luo River). Wenwu 文物 (‘Cultural relics’) 1985.11: 31–36.
Reprinted in Shi Nianhai 1988: 374–386.

Field survey of a 324-metre section of the Qin wall near Houapocun 后阿坡村 in Pucheng County 蒲城县, Shaanxi in Pucheng County, Shaanxi. Poor photographs, worse in the reprint version. The two editions have slightly different maps: the reprint version seems better.

Map from Shi Nianhai (1988: 376). 
Shi Nianhai 史念海. 1991.
‘Zailun Guanzhong dongbu Zhanguo shiqi Qin Wei zhu changcheng’ 再论关中东部战国时期秦魏诸长城 (Once again on the Zhanguo-period defence walls of Qin and Wei in eastern Guanzhong). In He shan ji: Si ji 河山集 四集. Xi’an: Shǎnxi Shifan Daxue Chubanshe 陕西师范大学出版社, Orig. Zhongguo lishi dili luncong 中国历史地理论丛, 3, 1988., pp. 601–641.

Reply to criticism of Shi Nianhai, ‘Huanghe zhongyou . . .’ (1981). Cites many historical sources and some field observation, including some details on construction techniques. Map, line drawings.

Shi Nianhai (1991: 605). 
Sun Yimin 孙益民, and Wang Kai 王楷. 1982.
‘Wanli Changcheng xibu qishou yu jin Lintao bian’ 万里长城西部起首于今临洮辨 (Is the western end of the Great Wall in modern Lintao, Gansu?). Lanzhou xuekan 兰州学刊 (Lanzhou journal) 1982.1.

Not seen. Cited by Ye Xiaoyan (1987: 49, fn. 14).
 
Tang Xiaofeng 唐晓峰. 1977.
‘Neimenggu xibei bu Qin Han Changcheng diaocha ji’ 内蒙古西北部秦汉长城调查记 (Investigation of the Great Wall of the Qin and Han periods in northwestern Inner Mongolia). Wenwu 文物 (‘Cultural relics’) 1977.5: 16–24.

Field survey and trial excavations. Some details of construction techniques. Two maps, line drawings, 13 poor photographs.

Tang Xiaofeng (1977). 
Tian Tong 田瞳. 1999.
‘Han Changcheng yu Ming Changcheng’ 汉长城与明长城 (The Han Great Wall and the Ming Great Wall). Sichou zhi lu 丝绸之路 (‘The Silk Road’) 1999.5: 44.

Short note on defence wall sites in Hexi 河西 (the region West of the Yellow River).
 
Tong Zhuchen 佟柱臣. 1946.
‘Chifeng fujin faxian zhi Han qian tucheng zhi yu gu Changcheng’ 赤峰附近發現之漢前土城址與古長城 (Remains of a pre-Han earthen wall discovered near Chifeng, Liaoning, and the ancient Great Wall). Lishi yu kaogu (Shenyang) 歷史與考古(沈陽) (History and archaeology, publ. in Shenyang, Liaoning) 1: 32–43.

Not seen. Cited in Zhongguo kaoguxue wenxian mulu 1900–1949 (1991: 142). 10 illustrations.
 
Wang Dafang 王大方. 2000.
‘Neimenggu Yinshan Xiaoyutai Qin Changcheng’ 内蒙古阴山小 余泰秦长城 (The Qin Great Wall in Xiaoyutai, Yinshan, Inner Mongolia). Wenwu tiandi 文物天地 (‘Cultural relics world’) 2000.1: 24–26.

Brief note on a field survey, with some historical notes. Two poor photographs.

Wang Dafang (2000). 
Wang Li 王莉, and Li Shaobai 李少白. 2003.
‘Sheyingshi de Changcheng’ 摄影师的长城 (A photographer’s Great Wall). Wenwu tiandi 文物天地 (‘Cultural relics world’) 2003.12: 20–21.

Very little text. Two colour photographs, one of the Ming wall, one of a wall which could be earlier.

Wang Li & Li Shaobai (2003). 
Wang Xing 王兴, Ma Xiaoqing 马小青, and Li Liucun 李六存. 2003.
‘Tadong Zhao guo qian li Bei Changcheng’ 踏动赵国千里北长城 (A walk on the thousand-li Northern Great Wall of the state of Zhao). Wenwu tiandi 文物天地 (‘Cultural relics world’) 2003.12: 22–23.

Description of a Zhanguo wall in Hebei, Shanxi, and Inner Mongolia. No historical sources cited. Two colour photographs.

Wang Xing, Ma Liuqing, & Li Liucun (2003). 
Wang Yanfen 王彦芬. 1983.
‘Chu fang cheng kao’ 楚方城考 (The Chu defence walls). In Chu wenhua yanjiu lunji 楚文化研究论集. Zhongzhou Shuhua She 中州书画社.

Not seen. Cited by Xiao Huakun & Ai Tinghe (2003: 72, fn. 9).
 
Wang Zhongjiu 王重九. 1987.
‘Guanzhong dongbu Qin Wei zhu Changcheng yiji de zai tansuo’ 关中东部秦魏诸长城遗迹的再探索 (Further studies of the remains of the Great Wall of the Qin and Wei periods in the eastern Guanzhong region). Lishi dili 历史地理 (Historical geography) 5: 119–129.

Amplifications and corrections to Shi Nianhai (1982). Historical study, some field observation.
 
Wu Yuanzhen 吴元贞. 1986.
‘Yanhekou Changcheng’ 沿河口长城 (The Great Wall at Yanhekou). Wenwu tiandi 文物天地 (‘Cultural relics world’) 1986.3: 29.

Brief note on a section of the Ming wall in Beijing Municipality. One poor photograph.
 
Xia Zhenying 夏振英, and Hu Lingui 呼林贵. 1985.
‘Shǎnxi Huayin jingnei Qin Wei changcheng kao’ 陕西华阴境内秦魏长城考 (The defence walls of Qin and Wei in Huayin County, Shaanxi). Wenbo 文博 (Relics and museology) 1985.3.

Not seen. Cited by Ye Xiaoyan (1987: 49, fn. 12).
 
Xian Ming 鲜明, and Shang Wuzheng 尚无正. 1992.
‘Gansu Yongjing xian jingnei Qin changcheng zhiyi’ 甘肃永靖县境内秦长城质疑 (Doubts concerning a supposed Qin defence wall in Yongjing County, Gansu). Wenbo 文博 (Relics and museology) 1992.3: 87–88, 96.

Criticizes Ma Shuying (1989). Argues that the wall in question dates from the Ming rather than the Qin or Han period. No illustrations.
 
Xiang Chunsheng 项春松. 1981.
‘Zhaowuda meng Yan Qin Han Changcheng yizhi diaocha baogao’ 昭乌达盟燕秦汉长城遗址调查报告 (Investigation of remains of the Yan–Qin Great Wall in Zhaowuda League, Inner Mongolia). In Zhongguo Changcheng yiji diaocha baogao ji 中国长城遗迹调查报告集. Beijing: Wenwu Chubanshe 文物出版社, pp. 6–20.

Field surveys and trial excavations. Details of construction techniques. Virtually unreadable map, very poor photographs of features and artefacts, line drawings.

Xiang Chunsong (1981: 9, fig. 3). 
Xiang Chunsheng 项春松. 1985.
‘Zhaowuda Meng Handai Changcheng yizhi diaocha baogao ’ 昭乌达盟汉代长城遗址调查报告 (Investigation of remains of the Han-period defence wall in Zhaowuda League, Inner Mongolia.). Wenwu 文物 (‘Cultural relics’) 1985.4: 69–79.

Detailed field observation and trial excavations. Details of construction techniques. 4 maps, 20 poor photographs.
 
Yao Shuangnian 姚双年. 1993.
‘Shǎnxi Heyang xin faxian Zhanguo shiqi Qin changcheng’ 陕西合阳新发现战国时期秦长城 (Newly discovered remains of a Qin defence wall of the Zhanguo period in Heyang County, Shaanxi). Kaogu yu wenwu 考古与文物 (‘Archaeology and cultural relics’) 1993.3: 52–56.

Field survey of a section of wall in southern Shaanxi. A few remarks on construction techniques. Map, poor photoraphs.

Yao Shuangnian (1993). 
Yue Shengyang 岳升阳. 2006.
‘Bei Qi changcheng diaocha xiaoji’ 北齐长城调查小记 (Survey of the Northern Qi [A.D. 550–577] defence wall). Beijing wenbo 北京文博 (‘Beijing cultural relics and museums’) 2006.1: 61–64.

Historical introduction + survey of wall remains in Changping 昌平 District, Beijing. Map, photographs, line drawings.

Yue Shengyang (2006: 62). 
Zeng Zhaoming 曾朝铭. 1987.
‘Beijing diqu Changcheng hangkong yaogan diaocha’ 北京地区长城航空遥感调查 (Investigation of the Great Wall in Beijing by aerial remote sensing). Wenwu 文物 (‘Cultural relics’) 1987.7: 60–67.

Investigation of Ming remains of Great Wall near Beijing by aerial photography. Small map, poor photographs.
 
Zhang Limin 张立敏. 2001.
‘Qinhuangdao shi jingnei de gu changcheng’ 秦皇岛市境内的古长城 (Ancient defence walls in Qinhuangdao Municipality, Hebei). Wenwu chunqiu 文物春秋 (Cultural relics annals) 2001.3: 49–51.

Field survey of two sections of defence wall, believed to be from the 5th century AD. 2 maps.
 
Zhang Wei 张维.
Lanzhou gujin zhu 兰州古今注 (Notes on Lanzhou).

Not seen. Cited by Xian Ming & Shang Wuzheng (1992: 88, 96, fn. 5) for the statement that the Qin Great Wall did not go through Lanzhou.
 
Zhang Weihua 張維華. 1937.
‘Qi changcheng kao’ 齊長城考 (On the defence walls of the state of Qi). Yugong banyuekan 禹貢半月刊 (Tribute of Yu semimonthly [journal of historical geography]) 7.1–3: 121–148.
Orig. Da gong bao shidi zhoukan 大公報史地周刊 49 (1935.8.23).

Not seen. Cited in Zhongguo kaoguxue wenxian mulu 1900–1949 (1991: 265).
 
Zhang Weihua 張維華. 1937.
‘Zhao changcheng kao’ 趙長城考 (On the defence wall of the state of Zhao). Yugong banyuekan 禹貢半月刊 (Tribute of Yu semimonthly [journal of historical geography]) 7.8–9: 41–60.

Not seen. Cited in Zhongguo kaoguxue wenxian mulu 1900–1949 (1991: 265).
 
Zhang Xiaoheng 张筱衡. 1958.
‘Liang Hui Wang Hexi changcheng kao’ 梁辉王河西长城考 (The defence wall of King Hui of Liang in Hexi). Renwen zazhi 人文杂志 (Humanities journal) 1958.6.

Not seen. Cited by Ye Xiaoyan (1987: 48, fn. 48).
 
Zhang Zhan 张展. 2006.
‘Beijing diqu Changcheng gaishu’ 北京地区长城概述 (The Great Wall in the vicinity of Beijing). Beijing wenbo 北京文博 (‘Beijing cultural relics and museums’) 2006.4: 72–79.

Historical introduction and description of ruins of defence walls of the Zhanguo, Northern Qi, and Ming periods. Three poor photographs.
 
Zheng Shaozong 郑绍宗. 1981.
‘Hebei sheng Zhanguo, Qin, Han shiqi gu changcheng he chengzhang yizhi’ 河北省战国、秦、汉时期古长城和城障遗址 (Remains of ancient defence walls of the Zhanguo, Qin, and Han periods in Hebei province). In Zhongguo Changcheng yiji diaocha baogao ji 中国长城遗迹调查报告集. Beijing: Wenwu Chubanshe 文物出版社, pp. 34–39.

Historical study with brief notes on field observations. Two maps, 10 poor photographs of features, 2 poor photographs of artefacts.
 
Zheng Yunshan 郑云山. 1999.
‘Miyun Changcheng “si lu”: Yingcheng, Chengbao, Guankou, Chenglou’ 密云长城 “四路”: 营城, 城堡, 关口, 城楼 (The “four routes” of the Great Wall in Miyun County, Beijing). Beijing wenbo 北京文博 (Beijing cultural relics and museums) 1999.1: 78–83.

Describes ruins of Ming walls in Miyun County, Beijing Municipality. Map, poor photographs.
 
Zhou Liang 周良. 2004.
‘Tongzhou Yaochangcun Bei Qi changcheng yizhi’ 通州窑厂村北齐长城遗址 (Remains of a Northern Qi defence wall at Yaochangcun in Tongzhou, Beijing Municipality). Beijing wenbo 北京文博 (‘Beijing cultural relics and museums) 2004.3: 63–71.

Mainly concerns the find of a Tang tomb with inscription, dated AD 798, which mentions a nearby wall and indicates that it is from the Northern Qi period (AD 550–577). References to historical sources, including Bei Qi shu and local gazetteers. Survey map, one poor photograph.

From Zhou Liang (2004). 

Additional references

- - -. 1980.
Zhongguo Kaogu Xuehui di yi ci nianhui lunwenji 1979 中国考古学会第一次年会论文集 1979 (Proceedings of the First Annual Congress of the Chinese Archaeological Society, 1979). Beijing: Wenwu Chubanshe 文物出版社.
 
- - -. 1984.
Xin Zhongguo de kaogu faxian he yanjiu 新中国的考古发现和研究 (‘Archaeological excavation and researches in New China’). (Kaoguxue zhuankan, A.17 考古学专刊, 甲种第十七号). Beijing: Wenwu Chubanshe 文物出版社.
A cheaper edition was also published, lacking the 216 plates.

Survey of archaeological work in China, 1949 – ca. 1982. Sections on particular subjects are listed separately in the present bibliography.
 
- - -. 1991.
Zhongguo kaoguxue wenxian mulu 1900–1949 中国考古学文献目录 1900–1949 (Bibliography of Chinese archaeology, 1900–1949). Beijing: Wenwu Chubanshe 文物出版社.
 
- - -. 1998.
Zhongguo wenwu dituji: Shǎnxi fence 中国文物地图集 陕西分册 (Atlas of Chinese cultural relics: Shaanxi). 2 vols. Xi’an: Xi’an Ditu Chubanshe 西安地图出版社.

Survey of all aspects of Shaanxi archaeology. Important for Qin archaeology.
 
- - -. [1999?].
Hebei sheng Changcheng zhi 河北省长城志 (General description of the Great Wall in Hebei province).

Not seen, possibly not yet published. Source: Wenwu chunqiu, 2001.2: 28.
 
Falkenhausen, Lothar von, ed. 2002.
Japanese scholarship on early China, 1987–1991: Summaries from Shigaku zasshi. Berkeley: Society for the Study of Early China and Institute of East Asian Studies.

Includes a certain amount of material on Qin history.
 
Gu Jiegang 顧頡剛. 1963.
Shilin zashi 史林雜識 (Notes from the Forest of History). Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju 中華書局.
Maps in separate envelope. Repr. 1977.

Several articles relevant to aspects of Qin. Poor photographs – possibly better in 1963 orig. than in 1977 repr.
 
Shi Nianhai 史念海. 1963.
He shan ji 河山集 (Rivers and mountains). Beijing: Sanlian Shudian 三连书店.

Collection of articles on historical geography.
 
Shi Nianhai 史念海. 1981.
He shan ji: Er ji 河山集 二集 (Rivers and mountains, collection 2). Beijing: Sanlian Shudian 三连书店.

Collection of articles on historical geography
 
Shi Nianhai 史念海. 1988.
He shan ji: Di san ji 河山集: 第三集 (Rivers and mountains, collection 3). Beijing: Renmin Chubanshe 人民出版社.

Collection of articles on historical geography.
 
Shi Nianhai 史念海. 1991.
He shan ji: Si ji 河山集 四集 (Rivers and mountains, collection 4). Xi’an: Shǎnxi Shifan Daxue Chubanshe 陕西师范大学出版社.

Collection of articles on historical geography.
 
Shi Nianhai 史念海. 1999.
He shan ji: Qi ji 河山集 七集 (Rivers and mountains, collection 7). Xi’an: Shǎnxi Shifan Daxue Chubanshe 陕西师范大学出版社.

Collection of articles on historical geography. Not seen.