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Introduction to the archaeometallurgy of iron
Donald B. Wagner

Crucible smelting in Liaoning

What we know of crucible smelting in Liaoning comes largely from two articles published in the Japanese journal Tetsu to hagane  鐵と鋼 in 1917. Both have been translated into English by Zenshirō Hara 原善四郎, who has also published a more general article in Japanese on Chinese traditional crucible smelting.

Anon. 1917. 最近滿洲鑛産物概況. Tetsu to hagane 鐵と鋼 3.10: 1117–1130.

Hara, Zenshiro. 1992. ‘Crucible smelting in Manchuria. Archeomaterials 6.2: 131–139.

Hara Zenshirō 原善四郎. 1993. ‘Chūgoku zuhō seitetsuhō no hitotsu: rutsubo seitetsuhō 中國土法製鐵法の1ち — ルッボ製鐵法’ (One Chinese traditional iron-production method: crucible smelting). Kinzoku 金屬 (Metals) 1993.4: 77–82.

Shimaoka Ryōtarō 島岡亮太郎. 1917. 滿洲に於ける舊式製鐵事業の概要’ (Older methods of iron production in Manchuria). Tetsu to hagane 鐵と鋼 2.3: 185–194.

Last edited by DBW 25 February 2023