The dating of the Chu graves of Changsha - Figures

Figure 1. Two ceramic ding-cauldrons from Chu graves excavated in Changsha (Changsha 1957: 30). The scale shows cm.


Figure 2. Three ceramic li-cauldrons from Chu graves excavated in Changsha (Changsha 1957: 35). Dimensions not indicated; probably about 20 cm high.


Figure 3. Four ceramic bo-howls from Chu graves excavated in Changsha (Changsha 1957: 33). The scale shows cm.


Figure 4. Iron artefacts which, in the view of Huang Zhanyue (1976: 67), are among the earliest found in China. The scale shows cm.

1. Scraper-blade from grave no. 52.826 at Longdongpo in Changsha, Hunan (Gu Tiefu 1954).

2. Scraper-blade from grave no. 12 at Deshan in Changde, Hunan (Yang Hua 1963).

3. Spade-cap from grave no. 314 at Shiziling n Changsha, Hunan (Changsha 1957: 66).

4. Lump of cast iron from grave no. 1 at Chengqiao in Luhe, Jiangsu (Wang Zunguo et al. 1965).

5. Bar of wrought iron from grave no. 2 at Chengqiao (KG 1974.2: 116ff).


Figure 5. Histograms showing the distribution of values of L/W (ratio of bottom length to bottom width) in four groups of Chu graves excavated in Changsha (derived from Changsha 1957: 169-170). The vertical scale indicates the number of graves in the given interval; for example in group 1.1 there are two graves with 3.30 <= L/W < 3.50.

For comparison a normal distribution curve with the same mean, standard deviation, and integral is shown superimposed on each histogram.

Group 1.2 requires two notes. (1) The report lists 32 graves in this group, but for one of these (no. 309) no dimensions are given. (2) The one grave in this group with a very high L/W value (no. 338) has severely tapering walls; it has bottom dimensions 2.44 x 0.60 m and mouth dimensions 2.60 x 1.00 m. If the mouth dimensions had been used here L/W would have been 2.60, which fits much better into the distribution. In the calculation of the mean and standard deviation all 31 graves were included, but the normal distribution curve given for comparison is based on the data for only 30 graves, excluding no. 338 (mean L/W = 2.31, standard deviation = 0.36).


Figure 6. Map showing all the modern place-names mentioned in the text.


Figure 7. Summary of relative chronology for ceramic artefacts excavated in the Chu cemetery at Yutaishan in Jiangling. Hubei. (Reproduced from Jiangling 1984: 130-133.) Rows, top to bottom: periods 6 to 1. Columns, left to right: 1: li-cauldron; 2: bo-bowl, here called yu-bowl; 3: guan-jar; 4: long-necked hu-vase; 5: ding-cauldron, series 1; 6: fu-dish; 7: hu-vase, series 1; 8: ding-cauldron, series 2; 9. dui-bowl; 10: hu-vase. series 2; 11: fang-vase; 12: he-bowl. Columns 1-4 are "articles of daily use", while the rest are ceramic imitations of bronze ritual vessels.


Figure 8. Histograms showing distribution of L/W for the bottom dimensions of 506 graves excavated at Yutaishan in Jiangling, Hubei. (Based on data given in Jiangling 1984: 150-190.) Bottom dimensions are not given for 52 of the total of 558 graves, and these are not included here.